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ERW and HFW Steel Pipe, What are the Differences?

The first is to know the difference between ERW and HFW welding processes.

ERW welding process refers to the heat generated by the resistance of the current flowing through the connecting metal. Therefore, a large current is required to charge the entire surface of the steel plate or coil to the welding length. During ERW welding, the current flowing through the entire conductor is 50/60 Hz.

The HFW welding process is different from the high-frequency process because high-frequency electromagnetic welding is only part of the metal heated by the induction coil. Both alternating current and direct current produce high frequencies. In these cases, a constant-current welding generator and a constant voltage high-frequency welding generator are used.

A constant current welding machine can generate power of 100-800 kHz. In the earlier process, the 60 Hz, AC current was converted to HF by using a triode and a tank circuit. The new welding machine uses metal oxide silicon, field-effect transistors, usually associated with parallel resonant circuits. The constant voltage generator uses insulated gate bipolar transistors. The design power of this transistor is about 2000 kW and the frequency range is 100-600 kHz.

There are two distinct features of HF current than 60 Hz line current:

While the 60 Hz line frequency current flows through the whole conductor but HF current flows only on the surface of the conductor, so it is a “skin effect”.

While two conductors carrying HF current are placed close to one another and the current concentrates on the two adjacent surfaces of the conductors, it is the “proximity effect”.

HFW current distribution: The current flows in the surface of the metal or the conductor. Both conductors are placed in close proximity with most of the HF current flowing on the adjacent sides of the conductors.

HFW is required in API 5L PSL2 ERW steel pipe

According to the API 5L and ISO 3183 specification, for PSL 2 pipes in the welded process, HFW welding is a mandatory requirement for ERW steel pipes. As it is an improvement from the inherent problems of hardness, lack of fusion, and susceptibility of stress corrosion cracking (SCC).

ERW steel pipe includes HFW steel pipe

ERW is the general term for electric resistance welded steel pipe. It can be divided into two types: alternating current welding (AC) and direct current welding (DC). According to the different frequencies, AC welding can be divided into low-frequency welding, intermediate frequency welding, ultra-high frequency welding, and high-frequency welding. High-frequency welding (HFW) is mainly used for ordinary or thin-walled steel pipes. It includes contact welding and induction welding. DC welding is usually used for small diameter steel pipes. Generally, HFW is one of the ERW production methods, which uses high-frequency welding technology. 

Therefore, the ERW steel pipe includes HFW steel pipe. 

General Properties of 904L Stainless Steel

Alloy 904L was originally developed to resist environments containing dilute sulfuric acid. It also has good resistance to other inorganic acids such as hot phosphoric

300 Series Stainless Steel Applications

316L is recommended when the presence of carbide precipitation ranges cannot be avoided or when post-weld annealing is not an expected result. 316 stainless steel